ILEX CRENATA

JAPANESE HOLLY

Position:  From direct sunlight to semi-shade

Soil requirements: Strong, permeable garden soil. For the plant substrata use a mixture of topsoil (no compost!) and coarse sand in equal measure. Additionally, mix in rough chippings, expanded clay or crushed lava in order to increase the water drainage and the pore volume of the substrata. Additionally one should add a layer of this material for drainage purposes.

Cutting: Cutting should be done after the first substantial appearance of buds in the spring, advisably with a sharp pair of shears. The last cutting should be carried out in August. From year to year the branches in the inner crown which are too close together or which have died should be removed.

Watering: The plant should be thoroughly watered after planting. After this, watering should take place when the uppermost 3-5 centimetres of the earth is dry. If the plant is in a pot then it should be watered every few days, until water runs out of the bottom of the pot.

Fertilizing: Initial fertilizing should be carried out in the spring, the last in late summer. It’s advisable to use organic fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer is also appropriate, but should then be half the recommended amount. Regular fertilizing is especially recommended if the plant is in a pot.

Winter protection: The Japanese Holly can only tolerate a certain amount of frost: in the case of extreme frost the plant must be covered using appropriate winter protection (e.g. coconut or fleece matting) against sunlight and cold winds.

PINUS PARVIFLORA

JAPANESE WHITE PINE

Position: Direct sunlight

Soil requirements: Sandy/pebbly and permeable garden soil. For the plant substrata use a mixture of topsoil (no compost!) and coarse sand in equal measure. Additionally, mix in rough chippings, expanded clay or crushed lava in order to increase the water drainage and the pore volume of the substrata. One should also add a layer of this material for drainage purposes.

Cutting: In winter the longest and strongest shoots from the year before can be completely removed. In the spring, when the shoots are fully grown out but the needles are not yet developed, these can be cut back by half to two thirds of their length. The shorter shoots can be left uncut. For an optimal result this cutting back should be done by hand. In the late summer or autumn the brown needles are cleaned away.

Watering: While pines generally prefer only a small amount of moisture, they should however not be too dry. After being planted they should be watered every few days until water runs out of the bottom of the pot.

Fertilizing: Initial fertilizing should be carried out in the spring, the last in late summer. It’s advisable to use organic fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer is also appropriate, but should then be half the recommended amount. Regular fertilizing is recommended particularly if the plant is in a pot.

Winter protection: The Japanese pines are unproblematic and are resistant even against heavy frost. If they are in a pot they should be protected against winds which might otherwise lead them to dry out.

TAXUS CUSPIDATA

JAPANESE YEW

Position : From direct sunlight to semi-shade

Soil requirements: Sandy/pebbly and permeable garden soil. For the plant substrata use a mixture of topsoil (no compost!) and coarse sand in equal measure. Additionally, mix in rough chippings, expanded clay or crushed lava in order to increase the water drainage and the pore volume of the substrata. Additionally one should add a layer of this material for drainage purposes.

Cutting: One should cut directly after the shoots first come to maturity, ideally with a sharp pair of shears. Shoots on the trunk should be completely removed. Further cutting throughout the year is generally not necessary. From year to year the branches which have died and those which grow too thickly together in the inner crown should be removed.

Watering: The plant should be thoroughly watered after planting. After this, watering should take place when the uppermost 3-5 centimetres of the earth is dry. If the plant is in a pot then it should be watered every few days, until water runs out of the bottom of the pot.

Fertilizing: Initial fertilizing should be carried out in the spring, the last in late summer. It’s advisable to use organic fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer is also appropriate, but should then be half the recommended amount. Regular fertilizing is recommended particularly if the plant is in a pot.

Winter protection: The Japanese Yew is thoroughly frost-resistant. If the tree is in a pot it should be protected during periods of extreme cold against winds which might otherwise lead them to dry out.